Facile Preparation of Bioactive seco-Guaianolides and Guaianolides from Artemisia gorgonum and Evaluation of Their Phytotoxicity
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SourceJ. Nat. Prod. 2012, 75, 1967−1973
Commercially available santonin was used to synthesize seven sesquiterpene lactones using a facile strategy that involved a high-yielding photochemical reaction. Three natural products from Artemisia gorgonum were synthesized in good yields, and in the case of two compounds, absolute configurations were determined from X-ray quality crystals. The structures previously reported for these compounds were revised. Sesquiterpene lactones were tested using the etiolated wheat coleoptile bioassay, and the most active compounds were assayed in standard target species. seco-Guaianolide (4) showed higher phytotoxic activities than the known herbicide Logran. This high activity could be due to the presence of a cyclopentenedione ring. These results suggest that compound 4 should be involved in defense of A. gorgorum, displaying a wide range of activities that allow proposing them as new leads for development of a natural herbicide model with a seco-guaianolide skeleton.