Counteranion and Solvent Assistance in Ruthenium-Mediated Alkyne to Vinylidene Isomerizations
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DepartmentCiencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Química Inorgánica
SourceInorganic Chemistry 2013, 52, 8919−8932
The complex [Cp*RuCl(iPr2PNHPy)] (1) reacts with 1-alkynes HC≡CR (R = COOMe, C6H4CF3) in dichloromethane furnishing the corresponding vinylidene complexes [Cp*Ru≡C≡CHR(iPr2PNHPy)]Cl (R = COOMe (2a- Cl), C6H4CF3 (2b-Cl)), whereas reaction of 1 with NaBPh4 in MeOH followed by addition of HC≡CR (R = COOMe, C6H4CF3) yields the metastable π-alkyne complexes [Cp*Ru(η2-HC≡CR)(iPr2PNHPy)][BPh4] (R = COOMe (3a-BPh4), C6H4CF3 (3b-BPh4)). The transformation of 3a-BPh4/3b-BPh4 into their respective vinylidene isomers in dichloromethane is very slow and requires hours to its completion. However, this process is accelerated by addition of LiCl in methanol solution. Reaction of 1 with HC≡CR (R = COOMe, C6H4CF3) in MeOH goes through the intermediacy of the π-alkyne complexes [Cp*Ru(η2-HC≡CR)(iPr2PNHPy)]Cl (R = COOMe (3a-Cl), C6H4CF3 (3b-Cl)), which rearrange to vinylidenes in minutes, i.e., much faster than their counterparts containing the [BPh4]− anion. The kinetics of these isomerizations has been studied in solution by NMR. With the help of DFT studies, these observations have been interpreted in terms of chloride- and methanolassisted hydrogen migrations. Calculations suggest participation of a hydrido−alkynyl intermediate in the process, in which the hydrogen atom can be transferred from the metal to the β-carbon by means of species with weak basic character acting as proton shuttles.