Antiretroviral therapy partially improves the abnormalities of dendritic cells and lymphoid and myeloid regulatory populations in recently infected HIV patients
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DepartmentBioquímica y Biología Molecular, Microbiología, Medicina Preventiva, Salud Pública; Medicina; Medicina
SourceScientific Reports (2019) 9:11654
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of antiretroviral therapy on plasmacytoid (pDC) and myeloid (mDC) dendritic cells as well as regulatory T (Treg) and myeloid-derived suppressor (MDSC) cells in HIVinfected patients. Forty-five HIV-infected patients (20 of them with detectable HIV load −10 recently infected and 10 chronically infected patients-, at baseline and after antiretroviral therapy, and 25 with undetectable viral loads) and 20 healthy controls were studied. The influence of HIV load, bacterial translocation (measured by 16S rDNA and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein) and immune activation markers (interleukin –IL- 6, soluble CD14, activated T cells) was analyzed. The absolute numbers and percentages of pDC and mDC were significantly increased in patients. Patients with detectable viral load exhibited increased intracellular expression of IL-12 by mDCs and interferon -IFN- α by pDCs. Activated population markers were elevated, and the proportion of Tregs was significantly higher in HIV-infected patients. The MDSC percentage was similar in patients and controls, but the intracellular expression of IL-10 was significantly higher in patients. The achievement of undetectable HIV load after therapy did not modify bacterial translocation parameters, but induce an increase in pDCs, mDCs and MDSCs only in recently infected patients. Our data support the importance of early antiretroviral therapy to preserve dendritic and regulatory cell function in HIV-infected individuals.