Nanoplastics: From tissue accumulation to cell translocation into Mytilus galloprovincialis hemocytes. resilience of immune cells exposed to nanoplastics and nanoplastics plus Vibrio splendidus combination
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DepartmentCiencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Química Inorgánica
SourceJournal of Hazardous Materials 388 (2020) 121788
Plastic litter is an issue of global concern. In this work Mytilus galloprovincialis was used to study the distribution and effects of polystyrene nanoplastics (PS NPs) of different sizes (50 nm, 100 nm and 1 mu m) on immune cells. Internalization and translocation of NPs to hemolymph were carried out by in vivo experiments, while endocytic routes and effects of PS NPs on hemocytes were studied in vitro. The smallest PS NPs tested were detected in the digestive gland and muscle. A fast and size-dependent translocation of PS NPs to the hemolymph was recorded after 3 h of exposure. The internalization rate of 50 nm PS NPs was lower when caveolae and clathrin endocytosis pathways were inhibited. On the other hand, the internalization of larger particles decreased when phagocytosis was inhibited. The hemocytes exposed to NPs had changes in motility, apoptosis, ROS and phagocytic capacity. However, they showed resilience when were infected with bacteria after PS NP exposure being able to recover their phagocytic capacity although the expression of the antimicrobial peptide Myticin C was reduced. Our findings show for the first time the translocation of PS NPs into hemocytes and how their effects trigger the loss of its functional parameters.