Chitosan-GPTMS-Silica Hybrid Mesoporous Aerogels for Bone Tissue Engineering
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Author/sReyes-Peces, Maria V.; Pérez-Moreno, Antonio; De los Santos Martínez, Deseada María; Mesa Díaz, María del Mar; Pinaglia-Tobaruela, Gonzalo; Vilches-Pérez, José Ignacio; Fernández-Montesinos, Rafael; Salido, Mercedes; De la Rosa Fox, Nicolas; Piñero, Manuel
DepartmentAnatomía Patológica, Biología Celular, Histología, Historia de la Ciencia, Medicina Legal y Forense y Toxicología; Física de la Materia Condensada; Ingeniería Química y Tecnología de Alimentos; Materno-Infantil y Radiología; Química Física
SourcePolymers 2020, 12(11), 2723
This study introduces a new synthesis route for obtaining homogeneous chitosan (CS)-silica hybrid aerogels with CS contents up to 10 wt%, using 3-glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) as coupling agent, for tissue engineering applications. Aerogels were obtained using the sol-gel process followed by CO2 supercritical drying, resulting in samples with bulk densities ranging from 0.17 g/cm(3) to 0.38 g/cm(3). The textural analysis by N-2-physisorption revealed an interconnected mesopore network with decreasing specific surface areas (1230-700 m(2)/g) and pore sizes (11.1-8.7 nm) by increasing GPTMS content (2-4 molar ratio GPTMS:CS monomer). In addition, samples exhibited extremely fast swelling by spontaneous capillary imbibition in PBS solution, presenting swelling capacities from 1.75 to 3.75. The formation of a covalent crosslinked hybrid structure was suggested by FTIR and confirmed by an increase of four hundred fold or more in the compressive strength up to 96 MPa. Instead, samples synthesized without GPTMS fractured at only 0.10-0.26 MPa, revealing a week structure consisted in interpenetrated polymer networks. The aerogels presented bioactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF), as confirmed by the in vitro formation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) layer with crystal size of approximately 2 mu m size in diameter. In vitro studies revealed also non cytotoxic effect on HOB(R) osteoblasts and also a mechanosensitive response. Additionally, control cells grown on glass developed scarce or no stress fibers, while cells grown on hybrid samples showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in well-developed stress fibers and mature focal adhesion complexes.