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dc.contributor.authorContreras de Villar, Francisco
dc.contributor.authorGarcía, Francisco J.
dc.contributor.authorMuñoz Pérez, Juan José
dc.contributor.authorContreras de Villar, Antonio
dc.contributor.authorRuiz Ortiz, Verónica
dc.contributor.authorLopez-Garcia, Patricia
dc.contributor.authorGarcía López, Santiago
dc.contributor.authorJigena Antelo, Bismarck
dc.contributor.otherCiencias de la Tierraes_ES
dc.contributor.otherCiencias y Técnicas de la Navegación y Construcciones Navaleses_ES
dc.contributor.otherFísica Aplicadaes_ES
dc.contributor.otherIngeniería Industrial e Ingeniería Civiles_ES
dc.date.accessioned2021-02-23T10:55:37Z
dc.date.available2021-02-23T10:55:37Z
dc.date.issued2021-01
dc.identifier.issn2077-1312
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10498/24545
dc.description.abstractThe size and great dynamism of coastal systems require faster and more automated mapping methods like the use of a remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS) or unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). This method allows for shorter intervals between surveys. The main problem for surveying using low-altitude digital photogrammetry in beach areas is their visual homogeneity. Obviously, the fewer the homologous points defined by the program, the lower the accuracy. Moreover, some factors influence the error performed in photogrammetric techniques, such as flight height, flight time, percentage of frame overlap (side and forward), and the number of ground control points (GCPs). A total of 72 different cases were conducted varying these factors, and the results were analyzed. Among the conclusions, it should be highlighted that the error for noon flights is almost double that for the early morning flights. Secondly, there is no appreciable difference regarding the side overlap. But, on the other side, RMSE increased to three times (from 0.05 to 0.15 m) when forward overlap decreased from 85% to 70%. Moreover, relative accuracy is 0.05% of the flying height which means a significant increase in error (66%) between flights performed at 60 and 100 m height). Furthermore, the median of the error for noon flights (0.12 m) is almost double that for the early morning flights (0.07 m) because of the higher percentage of grids with data for early flights. Therefore, beach levelings must never be performed at noon when carried out by RPAS. Eventually, a new parameter has been considered: the relationship between the number of GCPs and the surface to be monitored. A minimum value of 7 GCP/Ha should be taken into account when designing a beach leveling campaign using RPAS.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipFundacion Campus Tecnologico de Algeciras; Coastal Engineering Research group (University of Cadiz)es_ES
dc.formatapplication/pdfes_ES
dc.language.isoenges_ES
dc.publisherMDPIes_ES
dc.rightsAtribución 4.0 Internacional*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/*
dc.sourceJ. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(1), 19es_ES
dc.subjectUAVes_ES
dc.subjectRPASes_ES
dc.subjectlittoral systemses_ES
dc.subjectaerial photogrammetryes_ES
dc.subjectDTMes_ES
dc.subjectmonitoringes_ES
dc.subjectSfMes_ES
dc.subjectGCPses_ES
dc.titleBeach Leveling Using a Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS): Problems and Solutionses_ES
dc.typeinfo:eu-repo/semantics/articlees_ES
dc.rights.accessRightsinfo:eu-repo/semantics/openAccesses_ES
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/jmse9010019


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