Evolution of Experimental Models in the Study of Glioblastoma: Toward Finding Efficient Treatments
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Author/sGómez Oliva, Ricardo; Domínguez García, Samuel; Carrascal, Livia; Abalos Martínez, Jessica; Pardillo Díaz, Ricardo; Verástegui Escolano, Cristina; Castro González, Carmen; Nunez Abades, Pedro; Geribaldi Doldán, Noelia
DepartmentAnatomía y Embriología Humana; Biomedicina, Biotecnología y Salud Pública
SourceFront. Oncol. 10:614295
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common form of brain tumor characterized by its resistance to conventional therapies, including temozolomide, the most widely used chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of GBM. Within the tumor, the presence of glioma stem cells (GSC) seems to be the reason for drug resistance. The discovery of GSC has boosted the search for new experimental models to study GBM, which allow the development of new GBM treatments targeting these cells. In here, we describe different strategies currently in use to study GBM. Initial GBM investigations were focused in the development of xenograft assays. Thereafter, techniques advanced to dissociate tumor cells into single-cell suspensions, which generate aggregates referred to as neurospheres, thus facilitating their selective expansion. Concomitantly, the finding of genes involved in the initiation and progression of GBM tumors, led to the generation of mice models for the GBM. The latest advances have been the use of GBM organoids or 3D-bioprinted mini-brains. 3D bio-printing mimics tissue cytoarchitecture by combining different types of cells interacting with each other and with extracellular matrix components. These in vivo models faithfully replicate human diseases in which the effect of new drugs can easily be tested. Based on recent data from human glioblastoma, this review critically evaluates the different experimental models used in the study of GB, including cell cultures, mouse models, brain organoids, and 3D bioprinting focusing in the advantages and disadvantages of each approach to understand the mechanisms involved in the progression and treatment response of this devastating disease.