Pulsed Laser Welding Applied to Metallic Materials-A Material Approach
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DepartmentCiencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Química Inorgánica
SourceMetals 2021, 11(4), 640
Joining metallic alloys can be an intricate task, being necessary to take into account the material characteristics and the application in order to select the appropriate welding process. Among the variety of welding methods, pulsed laser technology is being successfully used in the industrial sector due to its beneficial aspects, for which most of them are related to the energy involved. Since the laser beam is focused in a concentrated area, a narrow and precise weld bead is created, with a reduced heat affected zone. This characteristic stands out for thinner material applications. As a non-contact process, the technique delivers flexibility and precision with high joining quality. In this sense, the present review addresses the most representative investigations developed in this welding process. A summary of these technological achievements in metallic metals, including steel, titanium, aluminium, and superalloys, is reported. Special attention is paid to the microstructural formation in the weld zone. Particular emphasis is given to the mechanical behaviour of the joints reported in terms of microhardness and strength performance. The main purpose of this work was to provide an overview of the results obtained with pulsed laser welding technology in diverse materials, including similar and dissimilar joints. In addition, outlook and remarks are addressed regarding the process characteristics and the state of knowledge.