Characterization of Cardiopulmonary Interactions and Exploring Their Prognostic Value in Acute Bronchiolitis: A Prospective Cardiopulmonary Ultrasound Study
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DepartmentMaterno-Infantil y Radiología
SourceTomography 2022, 8(1), 142-157
We aimed to delineate cardiopulmonary interactions in acute bronchiolitis and to evaluate the capacity of a combined cardiopulmonary ultrasonography to predict the need for respiratory support. This was a prospective observational single-center study that includes infants <12 month of age admitted to a hospital due to acute bronchiolitis. All the included patients underwent clinical, laboratory and cardiopulmonary ultrasonographic evaluation at the same time point within 24 h of hospital admission. The existence of significant correlation between cardiac and respiratory parameters was the primary outcome. The association of different cardiopulmonary variables with the need of respiratory support higher than O-2, the length of stay hospitalization, the PICU stay and the duration of respiratory support were a secondary outcome. We enrolled 112 infants (median age 1 (0.5-3) months; 62% males) hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis. Increased values of the pulmonary variables (BROSJOD score, pCO(2) and LUS) showed moderate correlations with NT-proBNP and all echocardiographic parameters indicative of pulmonary hypertension and myocardial dysfunction (Tei index). Up to 36 (32%) infants required respiratory support during the hospitalization. This group presented with higher lung ultrasound score (p < 0.001) and increased values of NT-proBNP (p < 0.001), the Tei index (p < 0.001) and pulmonary artery pressures (p < 0.001). All the analyzed respiratory and cardiac variables showed moderate-to-strong correlations with the LOS of hospitalization and the time of respiratory support. Lung ultrasound and echocardiography showed a moderate-to-strong predictive accuracy for the need of respiratory support in the ROC analysis, with the AUC varying from 0.74 to 0.87. Those cases of bronchiolitis with a worse pulmonary status presented with a more impaired cardiac status. Cardiopulmonary ultrasonography could be a useful tool to easily identify high-risk populations for complicated acute bronchiolitis hospitalization.