Poor self-reported sleep is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease: A cross-sectional analysis in half a million adults
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DepartmentDidáctica de la Educación Física, Plástica y Musical
SourceEuropean Journal of Clinical Investigation, Vol. 52, Núm. 5
Background: Sleep is known to affect cardiovascular health, but some controversy exists on the independent association between different sleep characteristics (duration, restfulness, difficulties falling asleep) and specific risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to assess the association between self-reported sleep characteristics and the likelihood of major CVD risk factors. Methods: Totally, 521,364 Spanish workers (32% female, 44 +/- 9 years [18-64]) insured by an occupational risk prevention company participated in this nationwide cross-sectional study. Participants' sleep was considered 'poor' if they reported having >= 1 of the following conditions: excessively short (<6 h/d) or long (>9 h/d) sleep, unrestful sleep, or difficulties to fall asleep. We assessed the independent association between aforementioned sleep characteristics and the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia, obesity and physical inactivity. Results: Poor sleep (reported by 33% of participants) was associated with a higher likelihood of presenting all CVD risk factors individually, particularly physical inactivity (which prevalence was similar to 3-fold higher in the poor sleep group compared with participants reporting no sleep abnormality). In separate analyses, all the different sleep characteristics were associated with the likelihood of >= 2 CVD risk factors. Participants with optimal sleep, normal sleep duration, no difficulties falling sleep and restful sleep showed a lower total CVD risk score than their peers with poor sleep, short sleep duration, difficulties falling sleep and unrestful sleep, respectively (all p < .001). Conclusions: Poor sleep was associated with a higher likelihood of presenting major CVD risk factors. These findings might support the importance of monitoring and improving sleep patterns for primary CVD prevention.