Exposure to Essential and Toxic Elements via Consumption of Agaricaceae, Amanitaceae, Boletaceae, and Russulaceae Mushrooms from Southern Spain and Northern Morocco
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SourceJ. Fungi 2022, 8, 545
The demand and interest in mushrooms, both cultivated and wild, has increased among consumers in recent years due to a better understanding of the benefits of this food. However, the ability of wild edible mushrooms to accumulate essential and toxic elements is well documented. In this study, a total of eight metallic elements and metalloids (chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se)) were determined by ICP-MS in five wild edible mushroom species (Agaricus silvicola, Amanita caesarea, Boletus aereus, Boletus edulis, and Russula cyanoxantha) collected in southern Spain and northern Morocco. Overall, Zn was found to be the predominant element among the studied species, followed by Cu and Se. The multivariate analysis suggested that considerable differences exist in the uptake of the essential and toxic elements determined, linked to species-intrinsic factors. Furthermore, the highest Estimated Daily Intake of Metals (EDIM) values obtained were observed for Zn. The Health Risk Index (HRI) assessment for all the mushroom species studied showed a Hg-related cause of concern due to the frequent consumption of around 300 g of fresh mushrooms per day during the mushrooming season.
Subjectswild edible mushrooms; metallic elements; metalloids; risk assessment; human health; organic food
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