A New Perspective on Huntington's Disease: How a Neurological Disorder Influences the Peripheral Tissues
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DepartmentBiomedicina, Biotecnología y Salud Pública; Medicina
SourceInt. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 6089
Huntington’s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a toxic, aggregationprone expansion of CAG repeats in the HTT gene with an age-dependent progression that leads to behavioral, cognitive and motor symptoms. Principally affecting the frontal cortex and the striatum, mHTT disrupts many cellular functions. In fact, increasing evidence shows that peripheral tissues are affected by neurodegenerative diseases. It establishes an active crosstalk between peripheral tissues and the brain in different neurodegenerative diseases. This review focuses on the current knowledge of peripheral tissue effects in HD animal and cell experimental models and identifies biomarkers and mechanisms involved or affected in the progression of the disease as new therapeutic or early diagnostic options. The particular changes in serum/plasma, blood cells such as lymphocytes, immune blood cells, the pancreas, the heart, the retina, the liver, the kidney and pericytes as a part of the blood–brain barrier are described. It is important to note that several changes in different mouse models of HD present differences between them and between the different ages analyzed. The understanding of the impact of peripheral organ inflammation in HD may open new avenues for the development of novel therapeutic targets.