Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Betalains from Opuntia Fruit Pulp of Different Color Varieties
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SourceAgronomy, Vol. 12, Núm. 11, 2022
Betalains are water-soluble pigments that have exhibited important pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, anticancer, antilipidemic and antimicrobial activity. These compounds have been isolated in numerous purple plants or fruits, as is the case of the wild species under the Opuntia genus. The fruits of these species are often disregarded because of their small size as well as the frequent presence of prickles. Based on this, this research has as its objective the optimization of a method based on ultrasound-assisted extraction to obtain extracts enriched with betalains from a wild Opuntia species (Opuntia dillenii (Ker Gawl.) Haw.). Four variables (%EtOH in the solvent, temperature of extraction, ultrasound amplitude and cycle) were selected using a Box-Behnken design. The quadratic interaction of %EtOH and the interaction of %EtOH-cycle have proven to be influential variables at 95% confidence. The conditions to obtain the highest betalain concentration were 100 mg of pulp with 20 mL (60%:40% EtOH:H2O) solvent at 20 degrees C at 24% amplitude and 0.2 cycle for 10 min. The suitability and reliability of the method were evaluated with repeatability and intermediate precision tests obtaining CVs <5%. Finally, the developed method has been employed in the analysis of five Opuntia commercial samples and obtained significant antioxidant activity of the extracts, confirming its applicability.
Subjectsantioxidant activity; betalains; Box–Behnken; DPPH; optimization; Opuntia dillenii; ultrasound-assisted extraction
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