Fluoxetine: a case history of its discovery and preclinical development
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SourceExpert Opin Drug Discov. 2014 May;9(5):567-78.
Introduction: Depression is a multifactorial mood disorder with a high prevalence worldwide. Until now, treatments for depression have focused on the inhibition of monoaminergic reuptake sites, which augment the bioavailability of monoamines in the CNS. Advances in drug discovery have widened the therapeutic options with the synthesis of so-called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as fluoxetine. Areas covered: The aim of this case history is to describe and discuss the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of fluoxetine, including its acute effects and the adaptive changes induced after long-term treatment. Furthermore, the authors review the effect of fluoxetine on neuroplasticity and adult neurogenesis. In addition, the article summarises the preclinical behavioural data available on fluoxetine’s effects on depressive-like behaviour, anxiety and cognition as well as its effects on other diseases. Finally, the article describes the seminal studies validating the antidepressant effects of fluoxetine. Expert opinion: Fluoxetine is the first selective SSRI that has a recognised clinical efficacy and safety profile. Since its discovery, other molecules that mimic its mechanism of action have been developed, commencing a new age in the treatment of depression. Fluoxetine has also demonstrated utility in the treatment of other disorders for which its prescription has now been approved.