Botrydial and botcinins produced by Botrytis cinerea regulate the expression of Trichoderma arundinaceum genes involved in trichothecene biosynthesis
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Author/sG. Malmierca, Mónica; Izquierdo Bueno Reina, Inmaculada; P. McCormick, Susan; Cardoza, Rosa Elena; J. Alexander, Nancy; Moraga Galindo, Javier; V. Gomes, Eriston; H. Proctor, Robert; González Collado, Isidro; Monte, Enrique; Gutiérrez, Santiago
SourceMOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY (2016) 17(7) , 1017–1031
Trichoderma arundinaceum IBT 40837 (Ta37) and Botrytis cinerea produce the sesquiterpenes harzianum A (HA) and botrydial (BOT), respectively, and also the polyketides aspinolides and botcinins (Botcs), respectively. We analysed the role of BOT and Botcs in the Ta37–B. cinerea interaction, including the transcriptomic changes in the genes involved in HA (tri) and ergosterol biosynthesis, as well as changes in the level of HA and squaleneergosterol. We found that, when confronted with B. cinerea, the tri biosynthetic genes were up-regulated in all dual cultures analysed, but at higher levels when Ta37 was confronted with the BOT non-producer mutant bcbot2D. The production of HA was also higher in the interaction area with this mutant. In Ta37– bcbot2D confrontation experiments, the expression of the hmgR gene, encoding the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, which is the first enzyme of the terpene biosynthetic pathway, was also up-regulated, resulting in an increase in squalene production compared with the confrontation with B. cinerea B05.10. Botcs had an up-regulatory effect on the tri biosynthetic genes, with BotcA having a stronger effect than BotcB. The results indicate that the interaction between Ta37 and B. cinerea exerts a stimulatory effect on the expression of the tri biosynthetic genes, which, in the interaction zone, can be attenuated by BOT produced by B. cinerea B05.10. The present work provides evidence for a metabolic dialogue between T. arundinaceum and B. cinerea that is mediated by sesquiterpenes and polyketides, and that affects the outcome of the interaction of these fungi with each other and their environment.