Use of Multiflora Bee Pollen as a Flor Velum Yeast Growth Activator in Biological Aging Wines
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Author/sSancho-Galán, Pau; Amores Arrocha, Antonio; Jiménez-Cantizano, Ana; Palacios Macías, Victor Manuel
DepartmentIngeniería Química y Tecnología de Alimentos
SourceMolecules 2019, 24, 1763
Flor velum yeast growth activators during biological aging are currently unknown. In this sense, this research focuses on the use of bee pollen as a flor velum activator. Bee pollen influence on viable yeast development, surface hydrophobicity, and yeast assimilable nitrogen has already been studied. Additionally, bee pollen e ects on the main compounds related to flor yeast metabolism and wine sensory characteristics have been evaluated. “Fino” (Sherry) wine was supplemented with bee pollen using six di erent doses ranging from 0.1 to 20 g/L. Its addition in a dose equal or greater than 0.25 g/L can be an e ective flor velum activator, increasing yeast populations and its buoyancy due to its content of yeast assimilable nitrogen and fatty acids. Except for the 20 g/L dose, pollen did not induce any significant e ect on flor velum metabolism, physicochemical parameters, organic acids, major volatile compounds, or glycerol. Sensory analysis showed that low bee pollen doses increase wine’s biological aging attributes, obtaining the highest score from the tasting panel. Multiflora bee pollen could be a natural oenological tool to enhance flor velum development and wine sensory qualities. This study confirms association between the bee pollen dose applied and the flor velum growth rate. The addition of bee pollen could help winemakers to accelerate or reimplant flor velum in biologically aged wines.