The diagnostic value of pleural fluid homocysteine in malignant pleural effusion
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Author/sSantotoribio, Jose D.; del Valle-VazquezI, Luis; García-de la Torre, Angela; del Castillo-Otero, Daniel; Lopez-Saez, Juan-Bosco; Sanchez del Pino, Maria J.
DepartmentBiomedicina, Biotecnología y Salud Pública; Medicina
SourcePLoS ONE 14(9): e0222616
Background Pleural fluid homocysteine (HCY) can be useful for diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion (MPE). There are no published studies comparing the diagnostic accuracy of HCY with other tumour markers in pleural fluid for diagnosis of MPE. The aim was to compare the accuracy of HCY with that of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen (CA) 15.3, CA19.9 and CA125 in pleural fluid and to develop a probabilistic model using these biomarkers to differentiate benign (BPE) from MPE. Methods Patients with pleural effusion were randomly included. HCY, CEA, CA15.3, CEA19.9 and CA125 were quantified in pleural fluid. Patients were classified into two groups: MPE or BPE. By applying logistic regression analysis, a multivariate probabilistic model was developed using pleural fluid biomarkers. The diagnostic accuracy was determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and calculating the area under the curve (AUC). Results Population of study comprised 133 patients (72 males and 61 females) aged between 1 and 96 years (median = 70 years), 81 BPE and 52 MPE. The logistic regression analysis included HCY (p< 0.0001) and CEA (p = 0.0022) in the probabilistic model and excluded the other tumour markers. The probabilistic model was: HCY+CEA = Probability(%) = 100x( 1 +e(-z))(-1), where Z = 0.5471x[ HCY]+0.3846x[ CEA]-8.2671. The AUCs were 0.606, 0.703, 0.778, 0.800, 0.846 and 0.948 for CA125, CA19.9, CEA, CA15.3, HCY and HCY+CEA, respectively. Conclusions Pleural fluid HCY has higher accuracy for diagnosis of MPE than CEA, CA15.3, CA19.9 and CA125. The combination of HCY and CEA concentrations in pleural fluid significantly improves the diagnostic accuracy of the test.