Germinal Matrix-Intraventricular Hemorrhage of the Preterm Newborn and Preclinical Models: Inflammatory Considerations
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DepartmentBiomedicina, Biotecnología y Salud Pública; Materno-Infantil y Radiología
SourceInt. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(21), 8343
The germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH) is one of the most important complications of the preterm newborn. Since these children are born at a critical time in brain development, they can develop short and long term neurological, sensory, cognitive and motor disabilities depending on the severity of the GM-IVH. In addition, hemorrhage triggers a microglia-mediated inflammatory response that damages the tissue adjacent to the injury. Nevertheless, a neuroprotective and neuroreparative role of the microglia has also been described, suggesting that neonatal microglia may have unique functions. While the implication of the inflammatory process in GM-IVH is well established, the difficulty to access a very delicate population has lead to the development of animal models that resemble the pathological features of GM-IVH. Genetically modified models and lesions induced by local administration of glycerol, collagenase or blood have been used to study associated inflammatory mechanisms as well as therapeutic targets. In the present study we review the GM-IVH complications, with special interest in inflammatory response and the role of microglia, both in patients and animal models, and we analyze specific proteins and cytokines that are currently under study as feasible predictors of GM-IVH evolution and prognosis.