Viral Loads and Disease Severity in Children with Rhinovirus-Associated Illnesses
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DepartmentMaterno-Infantil y Radiología
SourceViruses 2021, 13(2), 295
The role of rhinoviruses (RVs) in children with clinical syndromes not classically associated with RV infections is not well understood. We analyzed a cohort of children <= 21 years old who were PCR+ for RV at a large Pediatric Hospital from 2011 to 2013. Using univariate and multivariable logistic regression, we analyzed the associations between demographic, clinical characteristics, microbiology data, and clinical outcomes in children with compatible symptoms and incidental RV detection. Of the 2473 children (inpatients and outpatients) with an RV+ PCR, 2382 (96%) had compatible symptoms, and 91 (4%) did not. The overall median age was 14 months and 78% had underlying comorbidities. No differences in RV viral loads were found according to the presence of compatible symptoms, while in children with classic RV symptoms, RV viral loads were higher in single RV infections versus RV viral co-infections. Bacterial co-infections were more common in RV incidental detection (7.6%) than in children with compatible symptoms (1.9%, p < 0.001). The presence of compatible symptoms independently increased the odds ratio (OR, 95% CI) of hospitalization 4.8 (3.1-7.4), prolonged hospital stays 1.9 (1.1-3.1), need for oxygen 12 (5.8-25.0) and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission 4.13 (2.0-8.2). Thus, despite comparable RV loads, disease severity was significantly worse in children with compatible symptoms.