Modelling the bioconcentration of Zn from commercial sunscreens in the marine bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum
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SourceChemosphere, Vol. 307
Sunscreens contain ZnO particles used as a UV filter cause adverse effects in the marine environment through the release of this metal into seawater and its bioaccumulation in organisms. A mathematical model using sunscreen colloidal residues, seawater and R. philippinarum clams as differentiated compartments, is proposed in order to interpret both the kinetic pattern and the bioaccumulation of Zn in clams. Two kinetic laboratory experiments were conducted, both with and without clams exposed to sunscreen concentrations from 0 to 200 mg L−1. Both the lowest value of uptake rate coefficient obtained when 5 mg L−1 of sunscreen is added (0.00688 L g−1 d−1) and the highest obtained at sunscreen addition of 100 mg L−1 (0.0670 L g−1 d−1), predict a lower bioavailability of Zn in a complex medium such as the seawater-sunscreen mixtures, in comparison to those studied in the literature. The efflux rate coefficient from clams to seawater increased from 0 to 0.162 d−1 with the sunscreen concentrations. The estimated value of the inlet rate coefficient at all studied concentrations indicates that there is a negligible colloidal Zn uptake rate by clams, probably due to the great stability of the organic colloidal residue. An equilibrium shift to higher values of Zn in water is predicted due to the bioconcentration of Zn in clams. The kinetic model proposed with no constant Zn (aq) concentrations may contribute to a more realistic prediction of the bioaccumulation of Zn from sunscreens in clams.
SubjectsBioconcentration model; Kinetic; Sunscreen; Metal release; Zinc; Clam
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