Oxidative stress biomarkers in Senegal sole, Solea senegalensis, to assess the impact of heavy metal pollution in a Huelva estuary (SW Spain): Seasonal and spatial variation
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Author/sGravato, Carlos; Guilhermino, Lucia; Galindo-Riaño, María Dolores; Oliva Ramírez, Milagrosa; Vicente Martorell, Juan José
DepartmentBiología; Química Analítica
The responseofwildfishtoheavymetalswasstudiedinsole(Solea senegalensis) collectedin2004, 2005 and 2006 at three sampling sites from Huelva estuary (SWSpain), in the vicinity of a petrochemical and mining industry. Heavy metals As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn were analyzed in samples collected from sediment, water and tissue (liver) to examine their bioconcentration and effects in fish such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase (CAT;EC184.108.40.206), glutathione peroxidase (GPx; EC220.127.116.11), glutathione S-transferase (GST;EC18.104.22.168) and glutathione reductase (GR;EC22.214.171.124) were also analyzed in the fish liver.The results showed different effects in sole from diverse locations with varying degrees of pollution. Significant differences in LPO, CAT and GR activities between control fish and fish from sampling sites were observed as well as seasonal differences for biomarkers. Significant correlations were established between some biomarkers and heavy metals concentrations in liver, sediment and water. This study indicates the usefulness of integrating a set of biomarkers to assess the effects of pollutants in aquatic environments under complex mix of pollutants and chronic pollution situation.