Optimizing and Comparing Ultrasound- and Microwave-Assisted Extraction Methods Applied to the Extraction of Antioxidant Capsinoids in Peppers
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Author/sVázquez Espinosa, Mercedes; Velasco González de Peredo, Ana; Ferreiro González, Marta; García Barroso, Carmelo; Palma Lovillo, Miguel; Fernández Barbero, Gerardo; Espada Bellido, Estrella
SourceAgronomy 2019, 9(10), 633
Capsinoids are very similar antioxidant compounds to capsaicinoids, but less irritating, non-pungent and more palatable, and can thus be used in greater concentrations for food applications. To date, three capsinoids (capsiate, dihydrocapsiate, and nordihydrocapsiate) have been isolated from the pepper fruits. Due to its substantial commercial importance, it would be convenient to determine which pepper varieties have a richer content. Ultrasound- (UAE) and microwave- (MAE) assisted extraction have been implemented and analyzed using multivariate statistical methods. Firstly, di erent solvents were tested individually. The three best solvents were used in a set mixture design, where 42% methanol and 58% ethyl acetate were determined as the optimum combination for UAE, and 100% methanol for MAE. Subsequently, a Box–Behnken experimental design with four variables for both UAE and MAE (time, temperature, pH and sample mass:solvent volume “ratio”) was performed. The sample mass:solvent volume was the most influential variable in UAE; while for MAE no variable was any more influential than the others. Finally, both optimized extraction methods were successfully applied to di erent varieties of peppers. Besides, to demonstrate the e ciency of both extraction methods, a recovery study was performed. The results prove the potential of both techniques as highly adequate methods for the extraction of capsinoids from peppers.