Key-Marker Volatile Compounds in Aromatic Rice (Oryza sativa) Grains: An HS-SPME Extraction Method Combined with GC GC-TOFMS
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Author/sSetyaningsih, Widiastuti; Majchrzak, Tomasz; Dymerski, Tomasz; Namiésnik, Jacek; Palma Lovillo, Miguel
SourceMolecules 2019, 24(22), 4180
The aroma of rice essentially contributes to the quality of rice grains. For some varieties, their aroma properties really drive consumer preferences. In this paper, using a dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) system coupled to a two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) using a time-of-flight mass spectrometric detector (TOFMS) and multivariate analysis, the volatile compounds of aromatic and non-aromatic rice grains were contrasted to define some chemical markers. Fifty-one volatile compounds were selected for principal component analysis resulting in eight key-marker volatile compounds (i.e., pentanal, hexanal, 2-pentyl-furan, 2,4-nonadienal, pyridine, 1-octen-3-ol and (E)-2-octenal) as responsible for the differences between aromatic and non-aromatic rice varieties. The factors that are most likely to affect the HS-SPME efficiency for the aforementioned key-marker compounds were evaluated using a <mml:semantics>2III5-2</mml:semantics> fractional factorial design in conjunction with multi-response optimisation. The method precision values, expressed as % of coefficient of variation (CV), were ranging from 1.91% to 26.90% for repeatability (n = 9) and 7.32% to 37.36% for intermediate precision (n = 3 x 3). Furthermore, the method was successfully applied to evaluate the volatile compounds of rice varieties from some Asian countries.