Influence of Fruit Ripening on the Total and Individual Capsaicinoids and Capsiate Content in Naga Jolokia Peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.)
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Author/sVázquez Espinosa, Mercedes; Olguín-Rojas, José Arturo; Fayos, Oreto; Velasco González de Peredo, Ana; Espada Bellido, Estrella; Ferreiro González, Marta; García Barroso, Carmelo; Fernández Barbero, Gerardo; Garcés-Claver, Ana; Palma Lovillo, Miguel
SourceAgronomy 2020, 10(2), 252
"Naga Jolokia" (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) is a hot pepper variety native to India which has received the attention of the global scientific community due to its high capsaicinoid concentration. The present study evaluated the influence of fruit ripening on the total and individual capsaicinoids, as well as capsiate content. The aim was to determine the optimal moment to harvest the peppers depending on their pungent properties. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) using methanol as the extraction solvent and reverse-phase ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC-photodiode array (PDA)) were employed. Capsaicinoids gradually accumulated in the peppers from the moment they started growing until they reached a maximum concentration (7.99 +/- 0.11 mg g(-1) of fresh weight (FW)) at 33 days postanthesis (dpa). For this reason, based on its content of pungent compounds, as it is one of the main attributes of this variety, the optimal time for collection would be on day 33. From then on, there was a sharp decrease (96.35% of the total concentration) due to the peroxidase enzymes. The evolution of the principal capsaicinoids in "Naga Jolokia" peppers had a different behavior with respect to literature reports. After this investigation, these changes in content can be attributed to each pepper genotype. Capsiate content reached it maximum value at 19 dpa (0.27 +/- 0.01 mg g(-1) of FW). Then, there was a gradual drop due to the activities of different peroxidases. Given the important biological activity of capsaicinoids and capsinoids, the information described here allows for determining the ideal time to harvest "Naga Jolokia" peppers.