Effects and Risk Assessment of the Polycyclic Musk Compounds Galaxolide (R) and Tonalide (R) on Marine Microalgae, Invertebrates, and Fish
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DepartmentQuímica Física; Tecnologías del Medio Ambiente
SourceProcesses 2021, 9(2), 371
The current research investigated the potential environmental risk of the polycyclic musk compounds, Galaxolide (R) (HHCB) and Tonalide (R) (AHTN), in the marine environments. These substances are lipophilic, bioaccumulated, and potentially biomagnified in aquatic organisms. To understand the toxicity of HHCB and AHTN, acute toxicity tests were performed by exposing marine microalgae (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Tretraselmis chuii, and Isochrysis galbana), crustaceans (Artemia franciscana), echinoderms (Paracentrotus lividus), bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis), fish (Sparus aurata), and a candidate freshwater microalga (Raphidocelis subcapitata) to environmentally relevant concentrations (0.005-5 mu g/L) following standardized protocols (US EPA, Environment Canada and OECD). P. tricornutum and I. galbana were sensitive to both substances and for P. tricornutum exposed to HHCB and AHTN, the IC10 values (the inhibition concentration at which 10% microalgae growth inhibition was observed) were 0.127 and 0.002 mu g/L, respectively, while IC10 values calculated for I. galbana were 5.22 mu g/L (a little higher than the highest concentration) and 0.328 mu g/L, for HHCB and AHTN, respectively. Significant (p < 0.01) concentration dependent responses were measured in P. lividus and M. galloprovincialis larvae developments, as well as S. aurata mortality tested with HHCB. The effect of HHCB on P. lividus larvae development was the most sensitive endpoint recorded, producing an EC50 value (the effect concentration at which 50% effect was observed) of 4.063 mu g/L. Considering the risk quotients both substances seem to represent high environmental risk to P. tricornutum and M. galloprovincialis in marine environments.