Physicochemical and microbiological characterization of the sensory deviation responsible for the origin of the special sherry wines "palo cortado" type
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Author/sPalacios Macías, Víctor Manuel; Roldán Gómez, Ana María; Jiménez Cantizano, Ana; Amores Arrocha, Antonio
DepartmentIngeniería Química y Tecnología de Alimentos
SourcePLoS ONE 13(12): e0208330
The aim of this study was to characterize the biochemical changes and microbiological processes involved in the sensory deviation of “sobretablas” wines during biological aging, which leads to the origin of special or rare “palo cortado” wines. Industrial trials of biological aging of “sobretablas” wines with the potential for the development of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were performed to study this phenomenon. The results showed that sensory deviation was due to the development of malolactic fermentation (MLF) together with an attenuated aerobic metabolism of “flor” yeast. Malolactic fermentation (MLF) was promoted by the presence of malic acid concentrations that were higher than 1 g/L and the coexistence of LAB and “flor” velum yeast. Ethyl lactate, acetoin and 2,3-butanediol are some of the volatile compounds that are responsible for this sensory deviation. Wines with high levels of gluconic and malic acids (> 1 g/L) can cause, with very low probability, the sensory deviation of “palo cortado”. A lysozyme dose of 12 g/hL is an effective treatment to avoid malolactic fermentation (MFL) and sensory deviation. Understanding the biochemical and microbiological changes involved in sensory deviation can be useful to wineries as markers to identify the origin of the special sherry wines "palo cortado" type.