Extraction of Antioxidants from Blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius L.): Comparison between Ultrasound- and Microwave-Assisted Extraction Techniques
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Author/sEspada Bellido, Estrella; Ferreiro González, Marta; Carrera Fernández, Ceferino; Palma Lovillo, Miguel; Álvarez Saura, José Ángel; Fernández Barbero, Gerardo; Ayuso Vilacides, Jesús
DepartmentQuímica Analítica; Química Física
SourceAgronomy 2019, 9(11), 745
Berries are considered functional food because of their potential health benefits to consumers due to their high concentrations in bioactive compounds. The extraction process of their antioxidant compounds is a crucial step. In this work, ultrasound (UAE) and microwave (MAE) assisted extraction have been evaluated and compared for the recovery of total phenolic compounds (TPC) and total anthocyanins (TA) from blackberry. Since several variables have an influence on the extraction processes e ciency, a response surface method using a Box–Behnken design (BBD) was chosen for the optimization of UAE and MAE variables. Six variables (solvent, temperature, amplitude, cycle, pH, and sample:solvent ratio) were optimized for UAE while the optimization for MAE was performed on four variables (solvent, temperature, pH, and sample:solvent ratio). It has been proven that solvent and temperature have a significant influence on the extraction of both TA and TPC. Only 10 and 5 min were necessary to complete the UAE and MAE procedures, respectively. A precision study was also carried out, and coe cient of variation lower than 5% was determined. Non-significant di erences were obtained when using UAE and MAE at their respective optimum conditions. Thus, the results demonstrated a successful potential use of both techniques for the extraction of TA and TPC from blackberry. In conclusion, this work shows interesting perspectives for quality control analytical laboratories for the development of rapid extraction techniques to quantify these antioxidant compounds in blackberries.